Assessment of Health Care Needs of Older Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Anjanette S. De Leon, RN, MAEd, MAN
Josephine M. De Leon, PhD, RN


The global prevalence of diabetes by 2030 estimated an increase in number of people with diabetes. People who are 64 years of age will be 82 million in developing countries and 48 million in developed countries. The study aimed to assess the health care needs of older persons’ physical, cognitive, functional and self-care abilities and determine relationship of these to their profiles. These assessments are the bases in designing modules for Diabetes Self-Management Education training module for Diabetes Educators. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to assess the health care needs of 100 young older persons. The Filipino Activities of Daily Living (Fil-ADL) and the Filipino Instrumental Activities of Daily living were utilized to assess the functional status of the older persons. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA-P) and cognitive function exams were used to assess cognitive status while Mini- Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to assess nutritional status of the older persons. The Self-Care Inventory Revised (Sci-R) was used to assess self-care behaviors of older persons to diabetes management. Frequency and percentage were used to describe the health care needs of older persons, while mean and standard deviation were used in assessing knowledge and self-care abilities. Chi-square test for Association was utilized to determine relationship of the health care needs and the profile of the respondents. Study shows that most of the older persons are female, 66-70 years old, married and had primary education. The older persons’ knowledge in diabetes is satisfactory, had a normal nutritional status, was functional in daily living activities (ADL), was functional in their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was normal of their cognitive status, and sometimes perform self-care abilities to diabetes management. There is significant relationship between knowledge, civil status and history of diabetes. Nutrition and cognitive status had significant relationship to their civil status, education and history of diabetes. The functional status of the older persons has significant relationship with history of diabetes. It is necessary to include the culture-based health care needs of older persons and to consider demography such as education and history of diabetes in designing the training module for diabetes educators.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes self-management education (DSME), older persons, diabetes educators


About the Authors

Anjanette S. De Leon, RN, MAEd, MAN is an Assistant Professor at Centro Escolar University and currently the community coordinator of the School of Nursing. She earned her Master of Arts in Education at De La Salle, Manila and Master of Arts in Nursing at Centro Escolar University, Manila. At present, she is an active member of the Board of Directors of the Association of Diabetes Nurse Educators of the Philippines. Currently she is a lecturer and a facilitator of Diabetes Education Training at ISDFI Bldg., Marikina for Registered Nurses, Dietitians and Allied Health Care Professionals.

Josephine M. De Leon, PhD, RN is an Associate professor of the CEU School of Nursing and Graduate School. She is currently a member, House of Delegates Philippine Nurses Association of Zone 1 Manila Chapter. She is the adviser of the Philippine Nursing Research Society (PNRS) CEU Cell students’ organization. She earned her PhD degree major in Curriculum and Supervision at CEU Manila. She had completed and published research projects in local and international peer reviewed journal. Among her research interest includes, nursing education, diabetes mellitus, older persons and “Bundle of Care” interventions.